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Quantum Physics

Updated: Dec 30, 2021

Quantum Physics is the study of matter and energy at it's most fundamental level. A central tenet of quantum physics is that energy comes in invisible packets called quanta. Quanta behave very differently to macroscopic matter: particles can behave like waves, and waves behave as thought they are particles.

Plus, at it's heart, quantum rules rely on probabilities - quantum mechanics only reproduces classical physics on average. Some physicist argue that we just haven't worked hard enough, and that we do fundamentally live in quantum world, and that we can reproduce classical physics from purely quantum rules.

Niels Bohr and Max Planck, two of the founding fathers of Quantum Theory, each received a Nobel Prize in Physics for their work on Quanta. Einstein is considered the third founder of Quantum Theory because he described light as quanta in his theory of the Photoelectric Effect, for which he won the 1921 Nobel Prize.

Our world is defined in 11 Dimensions. The 11 Dimensions is a characteristic of spacetime that has been proposed as a possible answer to questions that arise in Superstring Theory or The Theory of Relativity, which involves the existence of 9 dimensions of space and 1 dimension of time.

With the turn of 20th century, the field of physics underwent two major transformations, roughly at the same time. The first was Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, which dealt with the universal realm of physics. The second was Quantum Theory, which proposed that energy exists as discrete packets-each called a "quantum." This new branch of physics enabled scientists to describe the interaction between energy and matter down through the subatomic realm.

Einstein saw Quantum Theory as a means to describe Nature on an atomic level, but he doubted that it upheld "a useful basis for the website of physics." He thought that describing reality required firm predictions followed by direct observations. But individual quantum interactions cannot be observed directly, leaving quantum physicists no choice but to predict the probability that events will occur. Challenging Einstein, physicist Niels Bohr championed Quantum Theory. He argued that the mere act of indirectly observing the atomic realm changes the outcome of quantum interactions. According to Niels Bohr, quantum predictions based on probability accurately describe reality.

May 15, 1935: The Physical Review publishers the Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) paper claiming to refuse Quantum Theory.

Newspapers were quick to share Einstein's skepticism of the "new physics" with the general public. Einstein's paper, "Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of the Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?" prompted Niels Bohr to write a rebuttal Modern experiments have upheld Quantum Theory despite Einstein's objections. However, the EPR paper introduced topics that form the foundation for much of today's physics research.

Einstein and Neils Bohr began disputing Quantum Theory at the prestigious 1927 Solvay Conference, attended by top physicists of the day. By most accounts of this public debate, Bohr was the victor

Einstein say God does not play dice:

Einstein described his "private opinion" of Quantum physics in one of the 1945 letters by referencing a phrase that he had already made famous: "God does not play dice with the universe." In the letter, he wrote: "God tirelessly plays dice under laws which he has himself prescribed." This variation clarified his argument that Quantum particles must adhere to certain rules that don't change randomly, and that the quantum world required better explanations for particle behavior.


Quantum Mechanics

Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory in physics that provides a description of the physical properties of nature at the scale of atoms and subatomic particles. It is the foundation of all Quantum physics including quantum chemistry, quantum field theory, quantum technology, and quantum information science.

Quantum mechanics is deemed the hardest part of physics. Systems with quantum

behavior don't follow the rules that we are used to, they are hard to see and hard to "feel", change depending on whether they are observed or not.

Within a few short years scientists developed a consistent theory of the atom that explained it's fundamental structure and it's interactions. By 1926 physicist had developed the laws of quantum mechanics, also called wave mechanics, to explain atomic and subatomic phenomena.


Quantum Entanglement

Quantum Entanglement is a physical phenomenon that occurs when a group of particles are generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in a way such that the quantum state of each particle of the group cannot be described independently of the state of the others, including when the particles are separated by a large distance. The topic of quantum entanglement is at the heart of the disparity between classical and quantum physics: entanglement is a primary feature of quantum mechanics lacking in classical mechanics.

Disparity between classical and quantum physics: In physics, the principle of locality states that an object is directly influenced only by it's immediate surroundings. A theory includes the principal of locality is said to be a "local theory". This is an alternative to the older concept of instantaneous "action at a distance". Locality evolved out of the field theories of classical physics. The concept is that for an action at one point to have an influence at another point, something in the space between those points such as a field must meditate the action. To exert an influence, something, such as a wave or a particle, must travel through the space between the two points, carrying the influence. Challenging Einstein, physicist Niels Bohr championed Quantum Theory. Einstein is considered the third founder of Quantum Theory because he described light as quanta in his theory of the Photoelectric Effect, for which he won the 1921 Nobel Prize.

Albert Einstein later famously derided entanglement as "Spukhafte Fernwirku" or "spooky action at a distance."

Albert Einstein famously said that quantum mechanics should allow two objects of affect each other's behavior instantly across vast distances, something he dubbed "spooky action at a distance"1. The phenomena of quantum entanglement comes useful to cut down on the time and computing power to process information transfer between qubits. Entanglement enables tasks as quantum cryptography, superdense coding, and teleportation.

What is quantum entanglement in layman's terms? Quantum entanglement is the name given to a special connections between pairs or groups of quantum systems, or any objects described by quantum mechanics. Quantum entanglement is one of the biggest parts of quantum mechanics that makes it hard to understand in terms of the everyday world.

The rule of Quantum Entanglement outer wilds:

Once standing on the shard with lights off and no photos, the player will be "quantumly entangled" with the shard and when light is turned back on the location will likely be the cave with no entrances. Traveling on the shard again will bring the player to the other locations.

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